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Palm Stearin for Preparation of Vegetable Oil Blends and Foods

Prashant Kumar, P. K. (2015) Palm Stearin for Preparation of Vegetable Oil Blends and Foods. PhD thesis, University of Mysore.

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Prasanth Kumar P.K, Dept. of Traditional Food and Sensory Science, CSIR-CFTRI, Thesis Titled as Palm stearin for preparation of vegetable oil blends and foods.pdf - Submitted Version
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Abstract

Palm tree yields high amount of fruits which contain oil, and is being produced in many countries for edible purposes. The crude oil undergoes refining to get a pale yellow coloured oil which is used for cooking purpose. The oil also contains natural antioxidants with beneficial properties such as β-carotene, coenzyme Q10, tocotrienols, tocopherols, squalene, phytosterols, etc. in substantial amounts in the crude oil which provide health benefits. But these get removed during refining. Several physical, chemical, and biochemical methods are used to refine the high acidic vegetable oils. Commercially steam deacidification is employed to remove the free fatty acids from crude palm oil. The other coomercially used method like caustic refining is not popular in the deacidification of high acidic crude palm oil. Most of the deacidification processes are based on the removal of free fatty acids from the oil which takes place along with the loss of substantial amounts of neutral lipids. Hence, the final product yields will vary accordingly and antioxidants retention in the oil also depends on the methods of deacidification used. The literature is scarce about the deacidification of crude palm oil which will retain most of the antioxidants and neutral lipids present in the oil. These aspects may enhance the yield of edible oils and reduce the quantity of waste products such as palm fatty acid distillate. Palm oil in its crude form is a mixture of low melting and a high melting glycerides. The crude oil is fractionated into a solid palm stearin fraction and a liquid olein fraction. The olein is useful for edible purposes while the solid fraction called as stearin is used for non-food applications such as candle and wax making. Crude palm stearin in its native state has no edible application because of the high melting point. To reduce high melting point of stearin fraction, it has to be subjected for fractionation, blending, enzymatic modification or combination of two of these processes. There is no study on the direct utilization of stearin; instead it has to be first refined, then blended with other vegetable oils and further modification through interesterification. The literature is scarce about the xii utilization of high acidic stearin fractions for improving the stability of vegetable oils through modification processes such as blending, esterification, interesterification or the combination of these techniques. Hydrogenation of vegetable oils is a common process used in the industry to make the hard fat for food applications. But, the process of partial hydrogenation of oils develops detrimental compounds like trans fatty acids and trans fatty acids have been recently implicated in health disorders. Hydrogenated fat is used in many processed foods to get extended shelf life. In our country, about 1.1 million metric tons of fats were produced annually by hydrogenation and a large amount of these are being utilized in confectionary, bakery and readyto- eat food products. Therefore, it is proposed to utilize palm stearin with high melting point for the preparation of trans free vegetable fat suitable for food applications. With this background, an attempt was made to study the chemistry and processing aspects of the oil and its fractions and also to find ways to utilize the waste fraction.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: stearin, crude palm oil, enzymatic deacidification, vanaspati substitute
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 19 Lipids-oils/fats
Divisions: Lipid Science and Traditional Foods
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 19 May 2016 06:18
Last Modified: 19 May 2016 06:18
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/12173

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