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Bioavailability Of Β-Carotene As Influenced By Food Processing And Presence Of Factors Such As Spices

Supriya, Veda (2009) Bioavailability Of Β-Carotene As Influenced By Food Processing And Presence Of Factors Such As Spices. Doctoral thesis, University of Mysore.

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Abstract

Micronutrient deficiency is a major public health problem in the developing countries, India accounting for nearly half of the world’s prevalence. Among the micronutrient deficiencies, deficiency of vitamin A is recognized as a serious public health problem leading to blindness. Animal foods such as eggs, milk and liver are good sources of preformed vitamin A. A majority of the population in India is dependent on plant foods, which provide carotenes, especially β-carotene, to meet their requirement of vitamin A. β-carotene is abundantly found in green leafy and yellow-orange vegetable. Several factors such as diet composition and methods employed for food processing affect the bioavailability of β-carotene from foods. Vitamin A malnutrition being widely prevalent, understanding the bioavailability of dietary β-carotene from plant foods, and its subsequent conversion to vitamin A is of utmost importance. Spices such as black pepper alter the ultra structure and permeability characteristics of the intestine, thus modifying the process of absorption. In vertebrates, provitamin A carotenoids are converted to retinol by the enzyme β-carotene-15, 15’-dioxygenase and retinal reductase. Since the enzymes are located in the intestinal cells which are directly exposed to various food components, actions of dietary components such as spices on the enzyme activity might affect the bioavailability of β-carotene derived from plant foods, and its bioconversion to vitamin A. It was therefore relevant to examine if such a spice also influence the β-carotene cleavage enzyme present in the intestinal enterocytes. Such information may lead to optimization of dietary approaches to increase the bioavailability of dietary β-carotene. Knowledge of the bioavailability of β-carotene from dietary sources is also important in order to rationalize the RDA for the same. In addition to the provitamin-A activity, β-carotene and other carotenoids are of much value as antioxidants. In this context, information on the bioavailability of β-carotene from plant foods assumes greater importance. In vitro methods which essentially provide inaccessibility value of β-carotene from foods offer quick and cost effective alternative to the more expensive and cumbersome in vivo procedures. Thus in present investigation an in vitro method was employed in screening a large number of foods and also for evaluating the influence of heat processing, presence of food acidulants and presence of antioxidant spices on the bioaccessibility of β-carotene. In view of the probable influence of a few specific spices on the ultra structure and permeability characteristics of intestines, animal studies were also carried out to assess the influence of specific dietary spices such as black pepper (or piperine), red pepper (or capsaicin) and ginger on the absorption of β-carotene and its bioconversion to vitamin A. Thus the present investigation has evidenced that strategies such as heat processing as encountered in domestic cooking, especially pressure-cooking, open-pan-boiling and stir-frying, inclusion of food acidulants – lime and amchur, inclusion of antioxidant spices – turmeric and onion, inclusion of milk along with fruit pulp, and consumption of spices, such as black pepper, red pepper and ginger would be useful in deriving β-carotene in higher amounts from its potential plant sources.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Micronutrient deficiency, vitamin A, plant foods, dietary β-carotene, dietary spices
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 30 Spices/Condiments
600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 16 Nutritive value > 04 Vitamins
Divisions: Dept. of Biochemistry
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2011 11:23
Last Modified: 11 Oct 2018 09:14
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/9958

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