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Preparation of Flakes from Oats and Buckwheat – Biotechnological Approaches

Aniketh, Bafna and Rakesh Ramesh Kamath, C. and Tejasvi Raj, B. (2009) Preparation of Flakes from Oats and Buckwheat – Biotechnological Approaches. [Student Project Report]

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This Dissertation / Report is the outcome of investigation carried out by the creator(s) / author(s) at the department/division of Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore mentioned below in this page.

Item Type: Student Project Report
Additional Information: One paddy variety which is famous in Karnataka, which is generally distributed for Public Distribution System (PDS), was considered i.e. IR 64. In one batch of experiment, the paddy was taken from a cold room, where the paddy was stored for nearly 3 years at about 7 C. In another batch of experiment, the paddy stored at room temperature for almost same period was considered. Various studies such as shelling, milling, cooking volume, cooking time and EMC-S was done. The husk obtained was comparatively more in room temperature rice than the cold room temperature. Breakage was comparatively more in the cold room temperature rice than the room temperature rice. The both the rice was subjected to milling. It was found that there was more amount of breakage in the McGill miller than that of the Satake Miller. Once the samples were obtained they were subjected to some physiological studies. In volumetric expansion it was found that there was almost the same expansion for both the milled rice. The cooking time was done which showed that the raw rice took more time to cook than the cold room temperature rice. In solid loss it was estimated that the cold room temperature rice lost about 15% of gruel and in room temperature there was about 12% loss as a result cold room rice had more solid loss than the room temperature rice. Moisture content of the cooked rice was estimated and it was seen that the cold room rice had about 81% moisture and room temperature rice about 75% moisture. EMC-S was done in order to know the amount of moisture taken up by the grains; here different samples such as rice with the husk, without the husk, husk, brown rice and the milled rice of both the condition were taken. One half of the sample was pressed and the others were estimated without pressing, it was found that the cold room rice samples took up more moisture about 26-38% moisture than the room temperature which took up about 5-31% moisture. The two samples were taken i.e. from the cold room which was at 7 degree C and from the room temperature. Prior to steaming the rice was tempered at various moisture levels. In cold room rice, the moisture was reduced by drying to about 8% moisture, and to this paddy moisture was added by calculated amount of water and stored overnight. Similarly the room temperature rice whose moisture was assumed to be 12-13% initially, the moisture level was increased by adding appropriate amount of water and kept overnight for equilibration. The samples were subjected to steaming at open atmospheric pressure for about 20 min and cooled to room temperature. The moisture content before and after steaming was studied. Once cooling was over the above properties were studied for cured rice. The three condition of rice samples with different moisture levels were subjected to shelling in which room temperature rice there were about 65% of head rice and 35% of broken, in cold room temperature where the moisture content was brought down to 8% the was moderate amount of brokens about 30-25% and in cold room brought to room temperature there were less amount of broken around 20%. They were then subjected to McGill miller in which there was large amount of broken rice and less amount of head rice in room temperature rice, in cold room temperature rice there was moderate amount of breakage in which the rice sample with 22% showed less breakage which is same in the case of cold room which was brought to room temperature. The cooking time of the samples were noted in which the room temperature rice took less time to cook about 19 minutes where as the cold room temperature and cold room brought to room temperature took about 20 minutes to cook. In cooking volume was done for the entire samples with different moisture condition were cooked and it was found that the one with 22% moisture cooked well with less expansion and the cold room temperature brought to room temperature sample with 22% moisture show good flakiness, good odor, color and was cooked to perfection. Solid loss showed that the samples of room temperature had about 10% loss, in cold room temperature around 12% and cold room brought to room temperature about 10%. Overall it is seen that the cold room temperature rice brought to room temperature with 22% moisture showed better result compared to others. Flaking of Oats & Buckwheat Oats are grown throughout the temperate zones. Oats have numerous uses in food; most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, or ground into fine oat flour. are also occasionally used in Britain for brewing beer. The oats are considered as a very healthy food and commercially nutritious. The oats bran is the outer grain casing of the oat. Its consumption is believed to lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disorders.Oats contain more soluble fiber than any other grain, resulting in slower digestion and an extended sensation of fullness. One type of soluble fibre, beta-glucans, has proven to help lower cholesterol. Oats processing is a relatively simple process. Upon delivery to the milling plant, chaff, rocks, other grains, and other foreign material are removed from the oats. Separation of the outer hull from the inner oat groat is effected by means of centrifugal acceleration using centrifugal sheller. The unsized oat groats will then pass through a heat and moisture treatment to balance moisture, but mainly to stabilize the groat. Oat groats are high in fat (lipids) and once exposed from their protective hull, enzymatic (lipase) activity begins to break down the fat into free fatty acids, ultimately causing an off flavor or rancidity. Oats will begin to show signs of enzymatic rancidity within 4 days of being dehulled and not stabilized. This process is primarily done in food grade plants, not in feed grade plants. An oat groat is not considered a raw oat groat if it has gone through this process: the heat has disrupted the germ, and the oat groat will not sprout. Three methods are used to make the finished product, Flaking, oat bran milling and whole flour milling. Buckwheat although a fruit of a dicot plant, is conventionally classed in agriculture and commerse with the cereals. Buckwheat originated from the plains of Mongolia and Russia ,and grows on poor soils and in extreme climatic conditions. The seends are unsuitable for breadmaking and are consumed as cooked grains (kasha), porriage o pancakes. Buckwheat contains 12-15% protein with a high biological value (90); the fat content is low (2-3%) . the high amt of vitamins of the B- grp minerals and traces trace elements is remarkable. Nearly forgotten buckwheat has been rediscovered and is used increasingly for special dishes on dietic food. Milling properties of oats processed in a variety of ways were studied. Samples included hulled grains, steamed hulled grains. Moisture content was adjusted to 5.3 – 14.5%. Milling properties of oats and buckwheat were influenced mostly by moisture content. Increasing grain moisture content had a adverse effect on energy utilization during gristing. Hydrothermal treatment of the grain reduced its resistance to disintegration. The oats and buckwheat samples were taken and were cleaned with removal of stones and chaff and the whole grains were obtained. These grains were initially dehusked and aspirated to remove the excess chaff and outer covering. The grains then were then taken for the studies of the hydration pattern. The hydration pattern was studied for both the dehusked and whole husked grains of Oats and Buckwheat. . The equilibrium moisture content was studied for the raw ungerminated dehusked grains that were obtained for the Oats and buckwheat. A large known quantity of sample of the oats and buckwheat (husked whole grain) was taken and was kept for germination as per given in the previous section. The grains were germinated for a given time intervals i.e., for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs. During this specified period the physical changes were observed in both the grains. For every check point i.e., for 24 hrs, 48 hrs etc. a small sample was removed and characteristics like the rooting out-growth and hardness of grain was studies. Small samples of the raw, 24 hr, 48 hr, 72 hr and 96 hr germinated oats and buckwheat grains were equilibrated to same moisture content (10±1%) and a given set of 25 grain at random was tested using Kiya hardness tester. The initial moisture of raw grains was measured to find the moisture content. Similar estimation was done for all the samples which are kept for germinated. The equilibrium moisture content was studied for the germinated husked and dehusked grains for 24 hr, 48 hr, 72 hr and 96 hr for the Oats and buckwheat. The studies was carried to study the germination of grains and its effect on flaking process so the two sets of germinated samples were considered for the studies that is 24 hr and 96 hr along with raw ungerminated samples. The equilibrium moisture content was studied for the flakes that were obtained for the Oats and buckwheat. These measured samples were passed through the Hammer Mill or Surabhi Mill. The dough was collected and passed through #60 mesh. Various biochemical tests were carried out on the powder that passes through the sieve. The major two biochemical tested were carried out for these powdered samples i.e., α- amylase test and the total carbohydrate test and the characteristics of the different samples were observed and noted.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Oats Buckwheat Processing biotechnology
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 21 Cereals
600 Technology > 05 Chemical engineering > 01 Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Divisions: Grain Science and Technology
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 22 Sep 2009 06:36
Last Modified: 28 Dec 2011 10:11
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/9179

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