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Aflatoxins in Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane of Maize Plants: A Case Study of Certain Villages of Perambalur District - Tamil Nadu

Rajkumar, K. (2009) Aflatoxins in Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane of Maize Plants: A Case Study of Certain Villages of Perambalur District - Tamil Nadu. [Student Project Report]

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Abstract

This Dissertation / Report is the outcome of investigation carried out by the creator(s) / author(s) at the department/division of Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore mentioned below in this page.

Item Type: Student Project Report
Additional Information: Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 are toxic fungal secondary metabolities produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These mycotoxins cause many health disorders in humans as well as in animals. A great deal of research in this area has been continuning to find out the remedy to detoxify the various aflatoxins. The guide line level aflatoxin in foods for human consumption is 20 ppb. The levels of toxin found in agriculture commodities are so high, farmers usually dispose them into soil as fertilizers. Further more, when standing crops are severely contaminated with aflatoxin caused by A. flavus infection, the same crop along with their grains are incorporated back into the soil mainly as fertilizers. In the present investigation, aflatoxin levels of 10 samples of rhizosphere soil, root, stem, leaf and cob of maize plants collected from different agro climatic regions of Perambalur district Tamil Nadu were analyzed. The maize plants collected in these different ecological conditions showed high levels of toxins. This was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS method. TLC method was also carried out for qualitative determination of aflatoxin in these soil materials prior to HPLC and LCMS methods of detection. There is a serious concern as the aflatoxins level detected were much higher than the guide line levels specified. The high incidence of toxins were found in the samples where the moisture content of soil was found to be high (more than 15%). The CFU count was also found to be high in these samples. It indicates that, moisture content of soil is a limiting factor in the growth of A. flavus in soil. Presence of toxin, despite the non prevalence of A. flavus in stem indicates that the toxin was absorbed by the root and transported to the stem region. Our experiment also revealed that absence of aflatoxin from cob suggests that the toxins from soil has not reached the cob portion of the plant The absorption of toxin could have deleterious effect on the growth, development and production of plants if toxins are detected in cobs.. More harmful effects of aflatoxin contaminated soils may be through changes in rhizosphere microorganisms that are associated with plants growth. The presence of these toxins in plants causes undesirable effects on grazing animals and cause acute toxicity or decreased productivity in animals and acute intoxication in humans. They are more important to humans since many toxins are carcinogenic. Primary liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in Asia. Therefore it is important to keep human exposure to aflatoxin as least as possible.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aflatoxin maize plants rhizosphere
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 22 Legumes-Pulses > 02 Maize
600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 12 Allergy & Toxicology
Divisions: Food Microbiology
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 03 Jun 2009 05:43
Last Modified: 28 Dec 2011 10:08
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/8961

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