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Mango (Mangifera indica L.), “The King of Fruits”—An Overview

Tharanathan, R. N. and Yashoda, H. M. and Prabha, T. N. (2006) Mango (Mangifera indica L.), “The King of Fruits”—An Overview. Food Reviews International,, 22. pp. 95-123.

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Abstract

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is commercially the most important fruit crop of India, accounting for > 54% of the total mango produced worldwide. Over 30 different varieties of mango are grown, the most important one is Alphonso, which is rated best in the world. It is known for its strong aroma, intense peel coloration, delicious taste, and high nutritive value (due to its high content of vitamin C, β-carotene and minerals). The chemical composition of mango pulp varies with the location of cultivation, variety, and stage of maturity. There is an increase from 1 to 14% in the starch content during fruit development, and towards the end of maturity, both reducing and nonreducing sugars are found to be increasing. The fruit ripening process involves aseries of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes that lead to the development of a soft, edible, ripe fruit with desirable qualities. Ethylene, a plant growth hormone, regulates many aspects of fruit development and cell metabolism, including initiation of ripening and senescence, particularly in climacteric fruits. Textural softening, an integral part of ripening of almost all fruits, is a major quality attribute that determines consumer acceptance. Fruit softening is thus accompanied by molecularstructural changes in cell wall constituents, which have been studied at both substrate (polysaccharides) and enzyme (glycanases and glycosidases) levels. Several lines of evidence have enumerated on compositional and structural modifications in pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides, especially of xyloglucan-type polymers during mango fruit ripening. Of late, modern biotechnological approaches are paving the way for healthy propagation and rapid multiplication of valuable geno types and improved plants, which augment advantages such as non-seasonal, almost year-round production and conservation of germplasm for better international exchange. Somatic hybridization via protoplast fusion could be an alternative to overcome problems such as difficulties in establishing aseptic mango cultures from mature explants associated with phenolic browning. In this direction, further biotechnological approaches may be worth pursuing for sustained mango cultivation.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mangifera indica, mango, fruit ripening, textural softening, enzymes,pectin, carbohydrate polymers, biotechnology
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 24 Fruits > 06 Mango
600 Technology > 05 Chemical engineering > 01 Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Divisions: Dept. of Biochemistry
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2007
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2018 10:37
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/578

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