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Food applications of proteolytic enzymes

Priyanka, Gupta (2005) Food applications of proteolytic enzymes. Masters thesis, University of Mysore.

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Abstract

This Dissertation / Report is the outcome of investigation carried out by the creator(s) / author(s) at the department/division of Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore mentioned below in this page.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Additional Information: <p align="justify">Enzymes have been used in food industry and proteases are one of the most important and widely used category of enzymes. Proteases are the hydrolytic enzymes that are employed to improve quality of food or to produce food with desired functional qualities by modifying the proteins inherent in the food products. It has taken a long time to understand the structure-functional relationship of proteases and their mechanism of action and this has been employed in food industry to exploit these proteases. Proteases are ubiquitous in nature and their diversity is one of the reasons for their side range of applications in food industry. Proteases are used in dairy industry, Meat industry,brewery industry etc. Proteases not only find applications in food industry but also in others like pharmaceutical industry, leather industry and detergent industry. In fact the major consumer of proteases is detergent industry where they are employed to improve the cleaning efficiency of detergents. In leather industry, proteases are used for bating process that is a food alternative to chemical methods. In pharmaceutical industry, they are used in developing therapeutic agents. In dairy industry, it is mainly employed in cheese manufacture. The enzyme used is rennin and now a day microbial rennin is a good alternative to animal rennet i.e.,produced from genetically engineered microorganisms, as the animal rennet is not able to meet the rising demands. In meat industry, proteases are employed for artificial tenderization and gelatin manufacture. Papain is used for artificial tenderization and it has recently found disfavor due to the deteriorative effect of proteases on the liver and kidney of animals that renders them unsalable. Gelatin manufacture from ossein and splits is done using alcalase and food-grade gelatin is produced that finds applications in ice-cream, canned food and gelatin desserts. In brewery industry, it is used for chill-proofing of beer. When beer is stored at cold temperature, turbidity is there due to complex formation between high molecular weight proteins and tannins and polyphenols. When the beer after fermentation is treated with immobilized papain, these high molecular weight proteins are broken down and hence no turbidity when beer is subsequently stored at low temperature. Hence, the aesthetic appeal of beer is improved. Proteases are also used in baking industry. Proteases’ function in baking industry is to modify gluten, the dough protein, to improve handling, machinability and also to make it suitable for biscuit preparation. Also, some people are having allergy to wheat proteins,so the gluten need to be modified. Proteases are also employed in production of speciality foods, i.e., foods targeted for specific population e.g., low fat foods for obese people, where these modified proteins with altered fat and water binding properties contribute to mouth feel, flavor and texture. Neutraceuticals, i.e., food or component of food that besides having nutritional quality provides medical or health benefits are also produced using proteases. Bioactive peptides are produced from a number of protein rich foods e.g., milk, soyabean using a number of proteases and different processing conditions (fermentation, hydrolysates etc.). these bioactive peptides are found to have ACE-inhibitory activity, Immunomodulatory activity, antihypertensive activity and many more. Also, some antimicrobials peptides are known to be formed using proteases. Proteases are also used for manufacture of soy products that include both fermented and hydrolysed products. Hydrolysis of soy proteins improve their functional properties e.g.,whipping expansion and emulsifying properties. Proteases are also employed for aspartame production. Among the above applications enzymes are the better choice than chemical catalysts as they are considered natural, are more specific in reaction and hence reduce the cost of further processing and do not require drastic conditions of work and do their work under physiological conditions. Recombinant DNA Technology and Protein Engineering have made these proteases cheaper and widely available. Also, now using these technologies one can construct protease of desired specificities to produce proteins o predetermined functional properties. These genetically engineered enzymes produced from GRAS status microorganisms can be put to new uses to exploit them to catalyze hitherto unexploited reactions! Hence, proteases represent a tool to modify food and word has to be done to employ these enzymes as food additives in a constructive manner. This is just the start of enzyme era.</p>
Uncontrolled Keywords: enzymes proteases food industry food applications
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology
500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 04 Chemistry and Allied Sciences > 16 Enzyme Chemistry
Divisions: Human Resource Development
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 27 Feb 2007
Last Modified: 28 Dec 2011 09:26
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/417

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