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Studies on Bioactive Compounds and Nutritional Evaluation of n-3 Fatty acid Rich Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed oil.

Umesha, S. S. (2014) Studies on Bioactive Compounds and Nutritional Evaluation of n-3 Fatty acid Rich Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed oil. Doctoral thesis, University of Mysore.

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Abstract

Dietary fats play important role in human nutrition. Fat is the most concentrated source of energy. One gram of fat gives 9 kcal of energy, where as carbohydrates and protein provide 4 kcal/g only. Hence fat provides calorie density to the diet. Fats are essential in the diet for absorption and mobilization of fat soluble vitamins such as Vitamins A, D E & K and fat soluble antioxidants. These vitamins are not utilized by the body if fat is not available in the diet. Thus fat works as a vehicle to carry the fat soluble vitamins, nutrients and antioxidants in the body. Stored fats provide insulation, helps to regulate body temperature. Fat is stored in adipose tissue, provides cushioning between organs. Vegetable oils are the only source of Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) to the body. EFAs are the precursor for a group lipid related compounds called eicosanoids. They are like local hormones and regulate many physiological functions. Lipids act as principal components of cell membranes, maintain cellular integrity, shape, and flexibility. Lipids are needed by all cell membranes, nerve, brain, eye, heart, adrenal and thyroid cells to function. They help to prevent or relieve symptoms of depression, facilitate the delay of memory loss and dementia Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series as well as those of n-6 series are essential fatty acids and have to supplement through diet. Alpha-linolenic acid (18:3: n-3,α-ALA) and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) viz., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA n-3, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, n-3, 22:6) are essential for normal growth, brain and retina development. It is also suggested to have beneficial effects on health, especially for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. Moreover, these fatty acids are suggested to ameliorate behavioral and mental health disturbances such as depression, schizophrenia, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In recent years, due to increased consumption of n-6 PUFA rich vegetable oils like Sunflower, Corn, Rice bran, and Safflower oils has shifted the n-6 to n-3 PUFA Synopsis Title: Studies on bioactive compounds and nutritional evaluation of n-3 fatty acid rich Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed oil iv ratio to 50:1 instead of a WHO/FAO recommended ratio of 10:1 or 2:1. There is an overall deficiency of ALA in our diet. Studies indicated that intake of high n-6 PUFAs (18:2, LA) in our diet has shifted the physiological status to one that is prothrombotic and pro-aggregatory, characterized by increases in blood viscosity, vasospasm, and vasoconstriction and decreases in bleeding time. Further, the deficiency of n-3 PUFAs has been implicated in inflammatory diseases viz., atopic dermatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, ulcerative colitis and cancer. However, sufficient intake of n-3 PUFAs alters membrane fluidity, down-regulates inflammatory genes, lipid synthesis and stimulates fatty acid degradation. The major dietary sources of ALA are vegetable oils namely rapeseed, flaxseed, perilla, walnut and soybean oils. n-3 LCPUFA are essentially provided by dietary sources such as fish and sea foods or formed in vivo through a series steps of elongation and desaturation from ALA. A survey on Indian dietary fatty acid pattern, in both rural and urban populations showed that linoleic acid (18:2, LA) levels were adequate to too high due to consumption of vegetable oils rich in n-6 fatty acids. 31% of Indians are vegetarians and among non-vegetarians fish consumption is limited due to geographic and economic reasons. Therefore, there is a need to moderate n-6 PUFA and increase n-3 PUFA in Indian vegetarian diet. To achieve this goal, oils including soybean, rapeseed, flax seed and walnut oil are being recommended as dietary oils rich in ALA. However, because of poor shelf life flax seed oil, it has been used either as an oral supplement or as a component of a controlled liquid-formula in diet. Therefore, an alternative way to increase n-3 fatty acids in the diet by adopting new safest technologies or have to be explored and assessed from new plant sources for shelf stable ALA rich oils. Lepidium sativum L. commonly called garden cress belongs to the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual erect herbaceous plant, cultivated all over the world. The plant is native to Southwest Asia (Persia) and spread many centuries ago to Western Europe. Garden cress shoots are added to soups, sandwiches and salads for its tangy flavor. It is also eaten as sprouts. In England, cut cress shoots are commonly used in sandwiches with boiled eggs, mayonnaise and salt. It figures prominently in Indian v Materia Medica with Sanskrit name Chandrasura. The seeds of garden cress claimed to possess varied medicinal properties like galactogogue, aperient, diuretic, alterative, tonic, demulcent, aphrodisiac, carminative and emmenagoggue. Garden cress seeds contain 24% of oil in which 32–34% is ALA. Garden cress seed oil (GCO) is relatively stable oil due to the presence of a high concentration of antioxidants and phytosterols. It has 1799 ppm of tocopherols and 531.56 μg/100g of caroteniods and 14.33 mg/g of phytosterols. Garden cress seeds have not been commercially exploited as an alternate source of ALA rich oil. Despite its great medicinal and nutritional value, garden cress has not received the attention it deserves. The United Nation Organization’s FAO has classified garden cress is one of the underutilized or neglected (cultural suppression) crop among age old crops.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Dietary fats, vegetable oils, Lepidium sativum L., garden cress, bioactive compounds
Subjects: 500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 10 Plants
500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 04 Chemistry and Allied Sciences > 17 Fatty Acid Chemistry
Divisions: Dept. of Biochemistry
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 19 Mar 2015 11:09
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2018 10:48
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/11763

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