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Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia mangostana L. obtained by Supercritical Fluid Carbon dioxide Process

Zarena, A. S. (2011) Characterization of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia mangostana L. obtained by Supercritical Fluid Carbon dioxide Process. PhD thesis, University of Mysore.

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Abstract

Mangosteen fruits usually grown in Southeast Asia, have found international market in recent years because of their growing knowledge in the pharmaceutical and food industry. To sum up, this work highlights the importance of mangosteen pericarp which have been traditionally used as an indigenous medicine as a rich source of health benefits. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extractions were carried with and without ethanol as modifier. The use of ethanol as an entrainer in SC-CO2 increased the overall yield and the xanthone recovery, comparing well with the Soxtec™ method. Response surface methodology (RSM) proved to be extremely useful in predictive modeling and optimization of extraction conditions such as pressure, temperature, solvent to material ratio and time on the extracts yield. Analytical tools such as RPHPLC- DAD, LC-ESI-MS and 1H, 13C NMR spectral techniques were useful in screening quantification and identification of xanthones, phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanin compounds. A one-step enzymatic glycosylation of α-mangostin in SCCO2 was successfully employed for the synthesis of α-mangostin-D-glucoside using amyloglucosidase. The conversion yield was optimized using central composite rotatable design. The results on long-term stabilities of mangosteen extract in oil-inwater (MIO/W) emulsions have shown to possess important implications for the design of whey protein concentrate stabilized emulsions for development of functionally bioactive compounds for health benefits. An overall result of the investigation are highly encouraging and adds to the current knowledge in the pharmaceutical and food industries for the possible commercial application of SC-CO2 in the extraction of bioactive compounds from mangosteen pericarp. There is an increasing public awareness of the health, environment safety and hazards associated with the use of organic solvents in food processing and the possible solvent contamination of the final products. The high cost of organic solvents and the increasingly stringent environmental regulations together with the new requirements of the pharmaceutical and food industries for ultra-pure and high added value products have emphasized the need for the development of new and clean technologies for the processing of food products. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as a solvent has provided an excellent alternative to chemical solvents. Over the past three decades, SCCO2 has been used for the extraction and isolation of valuable compounds from natural products. Carbon dioxide is particularly suitable solvent for food processing applications, because it’s moderate critical temperature (31.1 °C) and critical pressure (7.38 MPa) enables the extraction of thermally labile food compounds in near natural form. Additionally, it is non-toxic, environmentally acceptable and relatively inexpensive. Compared with conventional solvents CO2 does not leave any harmful solvent residue after extraction. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) belongs to the family of Guttiferae and is named ‘‘the queen of fruits”, it is a slow-growing tropical evergreen tree mainly found in India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. It bears dark red to purple rounded fruits of 5-7 cm in diameter. The edible portion of fruit (aril) is white, soft with a slightly sour taste. The pericarp of mangosteen fruit is 6-10 mm in thickness and has been used in Thai indigenous medicine for the treatment of skin infections, wounds and diarrhea for many years. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen have found to be prenylated xanthone and oxygenated xanthones, tannin, isoflavone, flavone and other bioactive substances. Xanthones have a variety of biological activity, for example antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antiplatelet aggregation, antithrombotic, prevention of oxidative damage of LDL, and inhibition of HIV-1 protease.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mangosteen fruits, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Garcinia mangostana L., pericarp extract, bioactive components
Subjects: 500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 07 Life Sciences > 03 Biochemistry & Molecular Biology > 18 Phytochemistry
600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 01 Analysis
600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 24 Fruits
Divisions: Food Engineering
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 16 May 2012 05:12
Last Modified: 16 May 2012 05:12
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/10768

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