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Biochemical studies on the antilithogenic effect of dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum)

Raghunatha Reddy, R. L. (2010) Biochemical studies on the antilithogenic effect of dietary fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum). PhD thesis, University of Mysore.

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Abstract

Cholesterol gallstone (CGS) disease ─ one of the major contemporary health problems, is a highly prevalent gastroenteronological disorder resulting from alteration in hepatic and biliary cholesterol homeostasis. The prevalence of this disease is very high in Europe and USA (10-15% of population), lesser in Asia (3-15%) and very low (< 5%) in Africa. The pathophysiology of CGS involves alteration in the delicate equilibrium between the three lipid components of bile, viz., cholesterol, bile acids and phospholipids. Increase in the concentration of cholesterol or decrease in the concentration of phospholipids and bile acids would push the CSI towards crystallization. Fenugreek seed has been documented to have hypocholesterolemic property, which is mainly attributable to the intrinsic dietary fiber constituent. The other constituents of fenugreek having the hypocholesterolemic property include saponins, diosgenin, trigonelline and 4-hydroxyisoleucine. With the aim of extending our knowledge on the possible anti-lithogenic influence of dietary fenugreek seeds mediated through hypocholesterolemic effect, the present research programme envisaged. Animal studies were carried out to study the effect of dietary fenugreek seeds on the induction of CGS, regression of pre-established CGS, effect on biliary proteins and also its combination with another known hypocholesterolemic spice onion on the incidence and severity of CGS. The antilithogenic potential of fenugreek seeds was evaluated at different dietary doses both in their raw and heat processed forms during HCD induced CGS formation in mice. CGS was induced were induced by feeding lithogenic diet (0.5% cholesterol and 0.25% bile salts) for 10 weeks. Fenugreek seed powder was included at 5, 10 and 15% of this lithogenic diet. Dietary fenugreek significantly lowered the incidence of CGS; the incidence was 63, 40 and 10% in 5, 10 and 15% fenugreek group respectively, as compared to 100% in lithogenic control. Serum cholesterol level was decreased by 26– 31%, hepatic cholesterol was lowered by 47–64%. Biliary cholesterol was reduced to 8.73–11.2 mM with dietary fenugreek from 33.6 mM (HCD) and CSI was reduced to 0.77–0.99 with fenugreek addition as compared to 2.57 in HCD group. Abstract CGS was induced by feeding a HCD for a period of 10 weeks. After the CGS induction, groups of these animals were maintained for further 10 weeks on high cholesterol/ basal control diet/ 6% fenugreek powder / 12% fenugreek powder diets. Dietary fenugreek significantly lowered incidence of CGS, the extent of regression being 61 and 64% in the lower and higher dose groups when compared to 10% regression in basal control group. Serum cholesterol reduced by 35%, hepatic cholesterol decrease by 53-63%, also decreased C: P ratio (0.40 - 0.44 as compared to 0.79 in the basal control group). Biliary C: BA ratio lowered by 67 and 73%. The CSI was 0.90 and 0.42 as compared to 1.86 in the basal control diet group). Activities of liver functioning enzymes in serum increased with HCD feeding and this effect was countered by fenugreek feeding. Fenugreek addition reduced hepatic lipid peroxides, increased antioxidant molecules and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes ─ glutathione reductase, glutathione-Stransferase and glutathione peroxidase compared to HCD. Incorporation of fenugreek into HCD decreased the cholesterol content (70.5%), total protein (58.3%), glycoprotein (27.5%), lipid peroxides (13.6%) and CSI (from 1.98 to 0.75), increased the bile flow rate (19.5%), prolonged the cholesterol NT, reduced the vesicular form of cholesterol (65%), increased smaller vesicular form (94%), increased phospholipid (33%) and total bile acid (49%) in HCD + fenugreek group as compared to HCD group. Electrophoretic separation of LMW proteins showed the presence of high concentration of 28 kDa protein which might be responsible for the prolongation of cholesterol NT in the fenugreek fed groups. The results of the effect of combination of fenugreek seeds and onion showed that fenugreek and onion individually exerted antilithogenic effect, the effect was higher in the case of fenugreek seeds but the combination was not more than that of fenugreek seeds alone. The present study has evidenced the antilithogenic potency of fenugreek seeds is attributable to its hypocholesterolemic effect. Fenugreek not only reduced incidence, but also regressed the existing CGS, thus preventing possible recurrence. The antilithogenicity of the fenugreek was considered to be due not merely to their ability to lower CSI, but also to their influence on biliary proteins. Among the studied spices fenugreek showed better antilithogenic effect.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cholesterol gallstone (CGS) disease, Fenugreek seed, hypocholesterolemic property
Subjects: 600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 11 Food Biochemistry
600 Technology > 08 Food technology > 30 Spices/Condiments > 08 Fenugreek
Divisions: Dept. of Biochemistry
Depositing User: Food Sci. & Technol. Information Services
Date Deposited: 15 May 2012 06:19
Last Modified: 15 May 2012 06:19
URI: http://ir.cftri.com/id/eprint/10751

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